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Pectus Excavatum: Expert Opinions and Guidelines

Pectus excavatum, also known as shoemaker's chest, is a deformity characterized by an inward depression of the rib cage. This condition can negatively affect the physical, psychological and social health of patients. Expert opinions and guidelines on the subject play an important role in improving the quality of life of patients.

Psychological Support is Important

One of the most important problems of pectus excavatum patients is their lack of self-confidence and psychological distress due to their appearance (Steinmann et al., 2011). Experts make the following recommendations to protect the psychological health of patients:

- Psychological counseling and therapy: Patients can increase their self-confidence and self-esteem by receiving psychological support (Lawson et al., 2003).

- Family and friend support: Support from family and close friends plays an important role in patients' recovery process.

- Social cohesion: By participating in social activities, patients can integrate with their peers and reduce the feeling of exclusion.

Maintaining Physical Health

Pectus excavatum can negatively affect respiratory and cardiac function (Shamberger, 2010). Experts make the following recommendations to maintain the physical health of patients:

- Regular check-ups: Patients should keep in touch with their doctor to have their respiratory and cardiac function regularly assessed.

- Physical activity: Patients should be encouraged to engage in appropriate physical activity to maintain a healthy lifestyle (Kelly and Shamberger, 2016).

- Nutrition: A balanced and healthy diet supports patients' physical and psychological health.

Evaluation of Treatment Options

Surgical and non-surgical methods can be applied in the treatment of pectus excavatum patients. Experts draw attention to the following points when evaluating the treatment options of patients:

- Patient preferences and expectations: The patient's preferences and expectations regarding the treatment method should be taken into consideration.

- Assessment of surgical risks: The risks and possible complications of surgical treatment options should be shared with the patient.

- Multidisciplinary approach: The physical, psychological and social needs of the patient should be addressed holistically.

Social Media Use

Pectus excavatum patients may experience difficulties with self-esteem and self-image management when using social media. Experts make the following recommendations for patients' use of social media:

- Share positive content: Patients can share hopeful and inspiring content on social media (Seligman, 2011).

- Choosing followers: Patients should follow people who support and like them (Baumeister & Leary, 1995).

- Being honest and transparent: Patients should be honest and transparent on social media (Walther, 2007).

In conclusion, expert opinions and guidelines are important to protect the physical, psychological and social health of pectus excavatum patients. Psychological support, guidance on physical activity and nutrition, evaluation of treatment options and adopting the right approaches in social media use play a critical role in improving their quality of life.


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological bulletin, 117(3), 497.

Haller, J. A., Loughlin, G. M., Lietman, S. A., Neviere, R., & Croitoru, D. P. (2014). Pectus excavatum: a 10-year review of results in 224 patients. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 49(7), 1211-1216.

Kelly, R. E., & Shamberger, R. C. (2016). Pectus excavatum. In Pediatric Surgery (pp. 1021-1036). Springer, Cham.

Lawson, M. L., Cash, T. F., Akers, R., Vasser, E., Burke, B., Tabangin, M., ... & Welch, C. (2003). A pilot study of the impact of surgical repair on disease-specific quality of life among patients with pectus excavatum. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 38(7), 916-918.

Seligman, M. E. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Policy, 27(3), 60-61.

Shamberger, R. C. (2010). Congenital chest wall deformities. Current problems in surgery, 47(8), 586-650.

Steinmann, C., Krille, S., Mueller, A., Weber, P., Reingruber, B., & Martin, A. (2011). Pectus excavatum and pectus carinatum patients suffer from lower quality of life and impaired body image: a control group comparison of psychological characteristics prior to surgical correction. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 40(5), 1138-1145.

Walther, J. B. (2007). Selective self-presentation in computer-mediated communication: Hyperpersonal dimensions of technology, language, and cognition. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(5), 2538-2557.






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